JOPERD cover

March 2024


JOPERD: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

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  March 2024 (Volume 95, Issue 3)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Return to Physical Education Is Not the Same as Return to Play: Proposed Guidelines for Re-integrating Students into Physical Education after Concussion

Brian Rieger, Matthew Murphy, Pamela Tucker and John Leddy

Recommendations for returning students to sports and school after concussion are well developed, but at present there are no specific guidelines for returning students to physical education (PE). Many schools utilize current return-to-play protocols for returning students to PE after concussion, which can result in students being prohibited from participation in the PE curriculum until they are symptom free, fully recovered, and medically cleared for all activities. Amid growing evidence that participation in exercise and other “normal” activities facilitates recovery from concussion, students should be allowed to return to PE class even while still experiencing concussion symptoms. A new return-to-physical education (RT-PE) process is presented here that helps to return students safely and successfully to PE while they are recovering from concussion and are still symptomatic. This process mirrors the existing return-to-play protocol, but with important differences. A key component of the proposed RT-PE process is good communication between the student, parents, PE teacher, school nurse and outside medical providers.


The Informed Learner in Physical Education: A New and Innovative Model for Teaching and Learning

There has been a continuous focus on developing quality physical education (PE) experiences that empower students to understand movement and engage in physical activity. This article describes a pedagogical approach that was developed to assist the PE student in understanding more about their own and others’ physical activity capacities. This new instructional approach, which is grounded in scientific methods, is called the Informed Learner in Physical Education (ILPE). The ILPE was developed to provide teachers with a pedagogical approach to facilitate meaningful learning and empower students within PE with the overarching goal of students becoming “informed learners of and about movement and physical activity.” Within the ILPE there are 4 features: (1) Activity Context and Educational Focus, (2) Inquiry Question, (3) Investigation, and (4) Evaluation and Articulation of Findings. These features and teacher considerations are discussed to assist PE teachers in the design and implementation of an ILPE experience.

Community Partnership Strategies to Facilitate Service-Learning Opportunities in PETE

University and local K-12 school partnerships are essential for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, as they provide valuable avenues for practicum and student teaching experiences. In addition, practicums within K-12 schools provide valuable opportunities for PETE students to develop physical activity leadership skills. Thus, it is essential to create sustainable and mutually beneficial university and school partnerships. One way to do so is through service-learning, which focuses on equal partnerships between K-12 schools, the university, and other parties involved (e.g., university students, community members). However, it can be challenging to develop meaningful field and service-learning experiences for pre-service teachers (PST) due to a myriad of reasons (e.g., location, resources). This article discusses strategies for community, K-12 school, and university partnerships using a service-learning approach. Recommendations for developing sustainable partnerships are also provided.

Advocating for Physical Education and Extracurricular Opportunities for Students with Disabilities

Physical educators, including adapted physical educators, are often called upon to advocate for their students with disabilities, their physical education programs, or themselves to affect change in practice or a student’s Individualized Education Program. These advocacy efforts are most effective when physical educators are knowledgeable about educational policies and legislative mandates, and how they can be applied to individual situations. This article provides key terms and reviews federal laws that impact physical education service delivery across the United States. Additionally, U.S. Department of Education policy letters and guidance documents from national organizations that support physical education and sport for students with disabilities are reviewed. Finally, the article presents common situations related to physical education along with resources stakeholders can use to address issues and advocate for physical education and extracurricular athletics for their students with disabilities.

Tee Up the Ball: Common Content Knowledge Packet for Teaching Golf in School Physical Education

This article presents various benefits of golf instruction and teaching resources for enhancing pre-service and in-service physical education teachers’ common content knowledge for performing and teaching golf games and skills in physical education. Golf has become more popular since the pandemic due to golf courses being a safe space for social distancing. With the surging interest in the sport and the many physical, health, cognitive and social benefits golf can provide, physical education teachers might consider including golf in the school physical education curriculum. There are limited resources specifically designed for developing physical education teachers’ common content knowledge to teach golf to children and youths in schools. With relevant teaching resources and learning opportunities, physical education teachers may decide to include golf in their curriculum. This article presents a common content knowledge packet, including facility and equipment lists, the game rules, etiquette and safety rules, the critical elements of swing techniques, and possible assessment test items for measuring student understanding.



Physical Literacy from the Start! The Need for Formal Physical Literacy Education for Early Childhood Educators

The early years of childhood development are a significant time for the acquisition and application of skills that foster motor development, cognitive understanding, and social well-being. However, there are gaps in knowledge of and practical skills for developing physical literacy within early childhood educator preparation programs. This article explains why training early childhood educators in physical literacy is crucial and how to do so.


Batting for Primary-Age Children: A Movement Concepts Medley

Batting or striking with a long-handled implement is an important fundamental motor skill used in several lifetime activities. This article outlines basic movement concepts that are developed through batting and provides recommendations that can serve as both curricular options for physical education and a potential homework idea for kids to explore at home.


United We Learn: Seven Strategies for Fostering an Inclusive and Engaging Synchronous Online Teaching Environment

Since online learning may be the best option for some programs or institutions, college instructors should have the competence and confidence to offer relevant learning experiences for their students in online learning environments. This article provides physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty with effective strategies for fostering an inclusive and engaging synchronous online learning environment for college students using a range of technology tools.


Teaching Health Behaviors that Correlate with Centenarian Longevity and Quality of Life

Data show that centenarian populations mostly consume a whole-food, plant-based diet, live an active lifestyle, and avoid toxins. Many Americans, however, do the opposite and succumb to numerous health-related diseases at a much earlier age. The lesson presented in this article was designed to help the health educator to use this data in their quest to improve the health of their students and increase the odds of them having a high-quality life.


Recklessness or Simple Negligence

A girls’ field hockey team coach instructed players to warm up in an area adjacent to the school’s turf field, where the boys’ soccer team was practicing. Plaintiff Morgan Dennehy, a member of the field hockey team, was struck at the base of her skull by an errant soccer ball. The plaintiff filed this suit against the coach, the school and others due to the defendants’ alleged failure to supervise and prevent potential and foreseeable dangerous conditions.